The Battle for Automotive Brand Loyalty in China

For the better part of two decades, China has been the global automobile industry’s greatest growth market. Since 2000, sales of passenger, light commercial vehicles, car dvd and android car GPS have increased about tenfold—to more than 20 million units a year—surpassing sales even in the U.S. and representing compound annual growth of about 20 percent.

Now that this golden era of super-fast growth is winding down, the vast Chinese car market is entering a new pivotal stage. Instead of only racing to win over first-time buyers, domestic and foreign automakers alike must secure the loyalty of existing customers. Based on research by The Boston Consulting Group’s Center for Consumer and Customer Insight in China, at least three-quarters of Chinese car owners—representing a massive installed base of more than 90 million vehicles—are planning to switch brands when they purchase their next vehicle or installation of android car stereo. We call this impending shift the “great brand migration.”

The reasons for this customer disloyalty vary. A large portion of China’s increasingly affluent consumers want to trade up to higher-quality or more prestigious brands now that they can afford to do so. Millions of others, however, intend to switch to a different car brand within the same segment. Why? When many of these consumers bought their first cars bring with car dvd player, they turned by default to brands they knew. Now, however, they are better informed about their options, and a high number of Chinese drivers are dissatisfied with various aspects of the cars they own.

The findings of BCG interviews with 2,400 car owners in China indicate that Chinese drivers are far more eager to switch brands than average consumers in developed economies. This sentiment, moreover, resounded among owners in every segment—from those driving basic domestic models to owners of pricey luxury vehicles and gm navigation.

Some findings suggest that the next great battle in China’s car market will be waged over customer loyalty. To be sure, China is likely to remain one of the world’s hottest markets for first-time car buyers for the rest of this decade. But success in China will increasingly depend more on automakers’ ability to keep existing customers and to lure customers away from competitors. For companies with a portfolio of car brands across a full range of price points, the ultimate goal should be to build sufficient loyalty in order to win customers and hold on to them as they migrate from lower-priced vehicles to the luxury end—rather than to have to capture these same customers over and over again.

For the handful of automakers that enjoy rock-solid reputations and consumer loyalty in China, the great brand migration of android car GPS is an enormous opportunity to increase share in a still-growing market. Most other car companies, however, must raise their game considerably in order to win the intensifying battle for loyalty.

Domestic brands are under particular pressure as many have been losing market share in China. They must improve their reputations for quality and performance—a daunting task given China’s intense price competition for economy vehicles. But not even multinationals can take their success for granted. The advantages that foreign brands enjoyed among first-time Chinese car buyers are starting to fade as attractive alternatives emerge. Chinese consumers are maturing as car buyers, and they clearly expect better quality, service, performance, car dvd player and android car stereo for their money. For car companies that meet consumer expectations and position their brands correctly, the prize to be won in China is immense.

The Hardest Part of Any Auto Restoration Project

Classic car restoration is not only about restoring a vehicle, it’s about restoring the times of a bygone era. For hobbyists that restore these cars, it’s a labor of love.

Now, you’ve found the perfect classic car, perfect model – it just needs a little work. But, where to begin? The hardest part of any auto restoration project is determining the scope of the project. Without clear cut goals and budgets at the beginning, you can easily find yourself in an endless and ongoing relationship with your automobile. Your money will rapidly transfer itself to your car, your time will disappear, and your automobile will never be quite finished – because you’ll always find some other slight imperfection to work on and “fix”.

There is no one right way to go about restoring a car. But good restorers do have common traits that separate them from the ones that never seem to finish their restoration jobs.

1. The ability to set realistic goals – No matter how long you take or how much money you spend, you will never be able to restore a classic car exactly to it’s state when it was originally brought to the market. Body paints are produced differently now than in the past so while you can easily get a color match, you will never get an exact paint ingredient match. Likewise, the formulations of finishing materials such as varnishes, enamels, and so on are no longer the same. And the same is true for many of the other classic car components. So you, as the restorer, have to set realistic goals as to exactly what parts of the car you are going to restore to their original states and what parts of the car you are willing to restore “as close as possible” to their original states.

2. Patience – It may sound paradoxical, but without patience, your chance of finishing your auto restoration are slim. You need patience because a major restoration job is seldom without problems. You discover the fuel gauge is not working and you have to scrounge around for a replacement. Or, the electrical system is suddenly becoming erratic and you lose two weeks time resolving the problem. Without patience, you may well decide to just give up and abandon the project or leave it until another day that never comes.

3. Love of Research – A good restorer, by necessity, has to be a good researcher as well. A car restorer spends much of his time not actively working on the auto, but finding what replacement parts are needed for his classic car and locating them. There are times when you will find yourself literally doing research for an entire day. If you don’t love research – or at least like it a lot – you can be sure of many miserable days ahead.

4. Good manual skills – This goes without saying but unless you love working with your hands and have some skills to speak of, you might just as well take your checkbook out and pay someone to restore the car for you, because you’ll never get it done yourself.

It seems as though the hobby of restoring classic cars is having a resurgence but before you decide to take the leap yourself and outfit your garage with installation tools, make sure you have the traits that will let you succeed at your new hobby.

Jaguar S Type Shifter Part malfunction

A very common difficulty with the 1999-2002 Jaguar S-Type cars can be breakage in the pricey shifter assembly for the automatic transmission. And to make matters worse, this shifter assembly has been on back-order from Jaguar for nearly a year or longer without ETA for new stock at the time of this listing.

The aluminum shift block replaces the weak plastic piece that fails on all Jaguar shifter assemblies. No need for a used shifter assembly or new shifter assembly from dealer! Save you hundreds of dollars.

Disconnect shifter assembly from vehicle, detach shift cable and install new aluminum shifter block. Reinstall to get a lifetime of trouble free shifting.

No more applying the parking brake to shift in or out of gear! No costly tows to the repair shop or dealer!

Shifter block malfunction is the most typical repair I see at Lansing Professional Fleet Auto Repair that fails in the Jaguar S-Types. I will be able to save you thousands of dollars, headaches and miss diagnosis of this problem.

I myself believe Jaguar S Types are utter garbage and I feel sorry for everybody who has bought one and desire to influence any future individuals from ever buying one. If you happen to be among the blessed ones who’ve not had any of these repairs fail with your S-Type or Lincoln LS you happen to be extremely lucky.

In case you didn’t know these cars are sisters, meaning they are identical, they share several similar components and style flaws. The three most typical problems are as follows.

Shift linkage breaks and vehicle will not go into or come out of park, front lower ball joints or front struts rattle and clunk, and rear of vehicle clunks and rattles awfully from bad lower strut bushings.

Shifter failure is the most typical and costly repair relating to the Jaguar S-Type. Sadly doing it once will not guarantee it is not going to happen for a second time. many owners learn a few days or months later the shifter breaks again. Average cost of this repair is $500-1000.00 Currently Jaguar has no supplier for the failed shifter assembly also to my knowledge I purchased the last new one back in December of 2009! I’ve obtained second-hand ones on EBay for about 100.00 since then I’ve seen them under $200 every now and then.

Why does this component break down you may ask? Well from the manufacture’s genius design and production skills they decided that a tiny plastic block the dimensions of half your hand is resilient enough to handle the force of your complete weight of your vehicle, the shifter itself, the transmission, the shift cable and regular wear on these parts.

To this day no recall continues to be issued as they do not think this is a safety concern or not enough people are injured (just your pockets) from this part failing.

I discovered an aftermarket company who will now be selling an alternate design ($179-$269) that may once and for all handle shifter block breakdown.

The piece that in the beginning failed was produced from firm plastic. The new design is constructed from aluminum and will never fail over again.

The repair will take you close to 1-2 hrs to complete for everybody who is good seasoned mechanic. If you aren’t you might have considered trying to permit another person do that one.

You’ll need to remove the middle console and part of the dash after which detach the shifter assembly to put in this part. We could replace the shifter block on the Jaguar S-Types in around 30 minutes because of the sizable amount of replacements we now have done.

 

Understanding Classic Car Paint

Getting a new paint job can be one of the most beneficial classic car restoration services. Classic car restoration services can use new paint to make your restoration look vibrant, colorful, and as good as new. However, there are several options to consider when you want to touch up or completely restore your vintage car’s paint job. Here are some of the things you need to think about before buying paint, primer, or even full paint jobs from classic car restoration services.

Restoration or Repainting?

Repainting an entire car – classic or modern – can be costly. Thankfully, it is sometimes possible to salvage the paint job on your classic car and retain the original color.

When old cars sit out for years in junk yards or spend decades without proper maintenance, their outer layers of paint can easily corrode. Ultraviolet rays, dust, salt, and acidic rain can wreak havoc on paint jobs. If your car has large patches of rust or corrosion, it will probably need several new coatings of primer, paint, and gloss.

If there are just a few blemishes, however, you can see dramatic improvements by simply removing the outer layer of paint. As long as the original paint job was several layers thick, stripping away the damaged layer can reveal deep, vibrant color.

Buying Paint

It can sometimes be difficult to find the right paint for your car. Older automobiles were often sold in colors that are no longer popular, so hobbyists who want to reproduce an authentic look will need to search for specialty paints. Classic car restoration services often carry vintage colors and offer options for mixing paints to achieve a specific appearance.

Prepping for a New Paint Job

If you’re going to repaint your car yourself, you need to put a great deal of time and effort into the prep work. Begin by using a power-sander to thoroughly smooth your car’s body and remove blemishes. This is a time-consuming process, but it is absolutely crucial for a quality paint job.

Once your car is smooth, thoroughly wash and dry it, using an air compressor to remove excess moisture, dirt, and particles left over from the sanding process. Finish the prep job by taping and covering every surface you don’t want painted.

Classic Car Paint

You first need to choose the most optimal environment possible for completing your paint job. Indoors is ideal, and perfect weather is a must if you’re going to paint outside. Dirt and insects can easily make their way onto your primer and paint once applied, leaving unsightly marks.

Before you apply any color, you’ll need to put on two coats of primer. Once your primer is dry, remove most of it by yet again sanding your car. This will leave a smooth, paint-friendly surface and fill in any gaps in car body.

When you’re ready to paint, you’ll need to either apply several thick coats, or use one coat followed by a protective gloss. In either case, you must constantly make sure the prior coats of paint or primer are completely dry and free of blemishes before you continue with the next.

Buying a Paint Job

Many hobbyists enjoy doing their own paint jobs, but it requires a great deal of time, money, know-how, and specialized equipment. Unless you own an auto shop yourself, it may be better to hire classic car restoration services to professionally apply a beautiful new paint job to your car.

Professional classic car restoration services can use blasting techniques like sand blasting to strip a car of its paint and finish, but even this doesn’t always work for some cars. For a comprehensive classic car paint restoration project, dipping the frame and body components in an acid wash to completely remove all seals, gaskets, paints, solvents, oils and dirt is often the best option. To find out what service is right for your antique automobile restoration project, please call a professional for a free quote now.

Proving a Defect Car Part Was Responsible for Your Car Accident

Sometimes car accidents are not the result of driver negligence. There are cases where the liability is with the manufacturer who failed to ensure a vehicle is safe before putting it in the hands of a customer. In such cases, the plaintiff must prove how the manufacturer failed and why they should be held responsible for the resulting accident.

Automotive Defects Are More Common Than You May Think —

There are three kinds of defects that may affect automobile safety. The first is in design, with the vehicle being flawed even before it was built. Normal usage of a poorly designed vehicle can result in injury. A good example of this type of defect is a car in which the fuel line connections create potential for fire.

A second type of defect is in manufacturing. A manufacturing defect occurs when parts are not properly or well made. If the parts on a vehicle are not the right shape or size, they can fail to work or come loose and cause injury to the driver, occupants or other people on the roadways.

The third type of defect is a warning defect. This is a failure by the manufacturer to notify customers of a known vehicle danger. An example of this type of defect is when the manufacturer knows that a part has resulted in multiple accidents, injuries or death of customers and yet the manufacturer does not issue a recall of customers with that same type of vehicle known to contain the defect part.

— Overview of Vehicle Defects —

Safe operation of a vehicle can be disrupted by defective auto parts. Such defects may be electronic or mechanical. Even the software designed to keep drivers and passengers safe can be defective. A defective part may lead to accidents. When enough of these types of problems have been found in association with a particular car model, a recall is issued.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration requires manufacturers to issue recalls when parts do not meet safety standards. This is done to ensure future accidents do not occur due to the same known cause. Over 390 million cars and trucks have been recalled to date, with 66 million auto parts and 46 million tires being replaced due to defects.

Liability is determined when the defect affects people. Injury and death can result from a vehicle part that breaks, with manufacturers possibly being held liable for the accident damages.

— Damages Due to Defective Parts —

Vehicle defects often destroy cars and trucks from within, where the defects may not be perceptible by drivers. Defects can cause accidents affecting multiple people and property. Each defect can cost thousands of dollars in destruction with injuries to people that include broken bones, abrasions, contusions and minor injuries.

— Liability in Defective Parts —

It is up to the plaintiff in a personal injury case to prove auto defect resulted in an accident. Because these cases can be quite complex, plaintiffs usually enlist the help of an experienced personal injury lawyer. The lawyer may conduct an investigation to gain evidence of the defect that caused the accident.
For such a case to be successful in court, the plaintiff must prove that the defect caused or contributed to the accident. For manufacturer liability to be proven, the plaintiff must show that the defect originated from the manufacturing process or otherwise while the vehicle was in the hands of the manufacturer.

When a defect is proven to have existed while under the manufacturer’s control, damages to the plaintiff must have occurred for any financial liability on the part of the manufacturer. A personal injury lawyer will review case information, circumstances and documentation to establish proof of damages caused by the defect in whole or in part.

— Working with a Lawyer for a Defect Case —

When buying a vehicle, drivers entrust that the vehicle meets safety standards and that the quality of that vehicle will ensure safety of those using it. When accidents happen due to a defect, injuries may be inflicted on the driver, passengers and others on the road. Lives may even be lost.

There are many things that a lawyer may need from the accident victims during a case, such as cooperation in not tampering with the vehicle until an examiner can inspect it. Defective auto part cases are particularly sensitive in this realm because it must be proven that the defect was from the manufacturer and not as a result of tampering after the car was sold to the customer. Documentation that may be required can include vehicle purchase paperwork, service records, records of damage, personal medication lists from the driver, insurance transaction details and traffic analysis.

The difficulty of a defect case involves the knowledge and experience of a personal injury attorney. Such an attorney has the right awareness, investigations connections and resources for proving such a case, when a defect exists.

Classic Car Restoration: What to do with a Basketcase Car

Deciding what to do with a basketcase car is one of the toughest decisions for people who’ve already invested time, money, and love into their classic car restorations. At the same time, there are plenty of vintage car veterans who are always ready to finish a difficult project. Whether you want to put the final touches on a half-finished car or you just can’t find the time to complete your own, you need to know how to save yourself time, frustration, and money. Here are a few things to consider before you buy, finish, or sell a basketcase car.

When You Want to Buy a Basketcase

Restoring a basketcase can be a challenging but rewarding experience. However, there are often good reasons why other enthusiasts are eager to get their incomplete hotrods and muscle cars off their hands. Before you invest in an old project, you’ll need to make these important considerations:

*Safety comes first. If the car you’re considering doesn’t even have breaks, an engine, or a steering wheel yet, then you may not have much to worry about. Otherwise, you should test the car in a safe, empty area. You need to make sure the owner is being honest about the car’s reliability and safety – or lack thereof.

*Check the frame and body. Cars that look like they’re on their last legs can sometimes be restored to their previous luster – but only if they still have solid foundations. If a classic car’s frame and body are in decent shape, then there’s good chance you’ll be able to make some headway on its restoration. If not, you’re looking at a bottomless money pit.

*Look for cover-ups. Some restorers and shops will cover large patches of rust and even holes with sheet metal. They don’t always do so maliciously, but unnoticed rust is extremely dangerous. It’s especially important to check for defects in places where larger parts have been replaced.

Sourcing Your Parts

When you’re restoring a barely-finished basketcase, you’ll need to find the best places to get your parts. If a previous owner didn’t get the project finished, it may have been because the necessary components were hard to find, too expensive, or both. Before you even make the purchase, it’s important that you find out how you’re going to get what you need – and what it’s all going to cost.

Once you’ve figured out what parts are necessary, you can check the online inventories of specialty shops across the country. There are also junkyards full of classic cars with parts for the taking, though you’ll need to go in person to see what’s available. Ultimately, you’re going to incur the greatest costs if you need foreign parts or shipping for large items.

When to Call it Quits

Even if you’ve lovingly labored over a classic car for years, there may come a time when you have to move on. A project will sometimes seem too good to be true when you first start – yet it becomes nothing but a financial drain further down the road. Your priorities and interests might also change, leaving you with an immobile heap in your garage or driveway.

Whatever the case may be, you can still get back some of your hard-earned money. Contact a professional classic car restorer now and inquire if they purchase or are interested in purchasing a basketcase project from you.

How Your First Car Will Change Your Life

Owning your first car will change your life more than you think. It’s not just a case of not having to wait outside in the wind, hail or snow for an overcrowded and smelly bus either. Your life will change because people will treat you differently, look at you differently and in some ways treat you more like an adult with responsibilities. Owning your first car is indeed a rite of passage just like puberty but rather than affecting your physical body it changes the way that the world perceives you, and the way that it treats you.

A Friend For All Seasons

Once word gets out that you have a car of your own and are fully mobile, you really do become a friend for all seasons, especially the cold and wet ones. You may even find that people who never used to give you the time of day are willing to spend time with you and hang out with you. This is because you have something that they desire, something that they need, a means of personal transportation that could come in very handy should there be a party that they need to get to, a gig that they need transportation for, or something bulky that they need to transport. And best friends they will remain for as long as they can use you. Yes it may mean that you get invited to some of the best parties and brilliant gigs, but remember that these new friends can drop you as soon as someone comes along with a better car or they get transport of their own.

Money What Money?

You may have been the one in the gang that always had money spare at the end of the week, which is probably why you thought you would be able to run a car. Well that is really going to change. Cars simply eat money, and if you have money put aside for a special occasion, they will come up with an occasion of their own such as a blown exhaust that will eat right into that little stash. You will go from being the well off mate to the guy always looking for petrol money.

You Will Form A Bond

Your car will become less of an inanimate object to you and more of a four wheeled friend. You will talk to your car, make deals with your car, sing in the car and generally start treating it as though it has its own personality. You will find yourself making bargains about buying something nice for it, or taking it to the car wash for a full valet or something else incredibly silly, just so that it starts as soon as you turn the ignition key, gets you to where you are going on time, or makes it to the service station before you totally run out of fuel. It might sound silly, but just about every car owner is guilty of doing it, just as you will be.

Jaguar S Type Shifter Part malfunction

A very common difficulty with the 1999-2002 Jaguar S-Type cars can be breakage in the pricey shifter assembly for the automatic transmission. And to make matters worse, this shifter assembly has been on back-order from Jaguar for nearly a year or longer without ETA for new stock at the time of this listing.

The aluminum shift block replaces the weak plastic piece that fails on all Jaguar shifter assemblies. No need for a used shifter assembly or new shifter assembly from dealer! Save you hundreds of dollars.

Disconnect shifter assembly from vehicle, detach shift cable and install new aluminum shifter block. Reinstall to get a lifetime of trouble free shifting.

No more applying the parking brake to shift in or out of gear! No costly tows to the repair shop or dealer!

Shifter block malfunction is the most typical repair I see at Lansing Professional Fleet Auto Repair that fails in the Jaguar S-Types. I will be able to save you thousands of dollars, headaches and miss diagnosis of this problem.

I myself believe Jaguar S Types are utter garbage and I feel sorry for everybody who has bought one and desire to influence any future individuals from ever buying one. If you happen to be among the blessed ones who’ve not had any of these repairs fail with your S-Type or Lincoln LS you happen to be extremely lucky.

In case you didn’t know these cars are sisters, meaning they are identical, they share several similar components and style flaws. The three most typical problems are as follows.

Shift linkage breaks and vehicle will not go into or come out of park, front lower ball joints or front struts rattle and clunk, and rear of vehicle clunks and rattles awfully from bad lower strut bushings.

Shifter failure is the most typical and costly repair relating to the Jaguar S-Type. Sadly doing it once will not guarantee it is not going to happen for a second time. many owners learn a few days or months later the shifter breaks again. Average cost of this repair is $500-1000.00 Currently Jaguar has no supplier for the failed shifter assembly also to my knowledge I purchased the last new one back in December of 2009! I’ve obtained second-hand ones on EBay for about 100.00 since then I’ve seen them under $200 every now and then.

Why does this component break down you may ask? Well from the manufacture’s genius design and production skills they decided that a tiny plastic block the dimensions of half your hand is resilient enough to handle the force of your complete weight of your vehicle, the shifter itself, the transmission, the shift cable and regular wear on these parts.

To this day no recall continues to be issued as they do not think this is a safety concern or not enough people are injured (just your pockets) from this part failing.

I discovered an aftermarket company who will now be selling an alternate design ($179-$269) that may once and for all handle shifter block breakdown.

The piece that in the beginning failed was produced from firm plastic. The new design is constructed from aluminum and will never fail over again.

The repair will take you close to 1-2 hrs to complete for everybody who is good seasoned mechanic. If you aren’t you might have considered trying to permit another person do that one.

You’ll need to remove the middle console and part of the dash after which detach the shifter assembly to put in this part. We could replace the shifter block on the Jaguar S-Types in around 30 minutes because of the sizable amount of replacements we now have done.

Mazda 6 DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) Removal Breakthrough

The Mazda 6 DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) is designed to trap soot also known as particulate matter from escaping the exhaust system into the atmosphere. It’s a great idea and works extremely well by reducing soot particles by up to 90%. In fact, it works a bit too well, so well that eventually it will block up and cause endless problems for the owner of the vehicle and until now, the only option was to replace the DPF with a new one which again will be waiting to get blocked again.

There is a process known as regeneration which your vehicle should do without your input, automatically every 200-300 or so miles which basically increases the temperature of the exhaust gasses to help burn off any soot trapped in the Diesel Particulate Filter box to unblock it so it can continue to work, however, this is not very effective and they continue to get blocked up to a point where even a forced regeneration is not possible.

Once the DPF has failed and a regeneration is not possible, your local dealer/garage will advise you buy unit. A new one will cost you in excess of £2000+ with parts, labour & vat. Buying a used / 2nd hand DPF is never advised as it will come partially blocked already and waiting to fail again. In fact, even with a new unit on your car it will not bring you complete piece of mind because the design of the Diesel Particulate Filter has not changed one bit, so you will be waiting for it to fail again.

If you drive with the DPF blocked, your vehicle will fall into LIMP mode (also known as LIMP HOME mode) and the Engine ECU will restrict the engines performance to 3000rpm to safeguard the engine and other mechanical components. With a blocked DPF, you will experience excess backpressure which could eventually weaken and blow the seals of your turbocharger and internal engine seals which will cause problems such as oil leaks and loss of power. So it’s best to get the problem fixed now rather than later.

Until now, that was your only option but recently we (Sinspeed Ltd) announced that we have finally come up with a solution, a breakthrough in the Mazda 6 DPF nightmare. We have been for many years, removing the DPF (Diesel Particulate Filters) from other vehicles such as Vauxhalls, Audi’s, VW’s, Seats, Skoda’s, Kia’s & Jaguar’s etc but until now no company in the world could remove the DPF from a Mazda 6 successfully without it falling into Limp Mode and having the speedo light up like a christmas tree with errors.

Sinspeed is the first & currently the only company in the whole of Europe and possibly the world, to be able to successfully remove the DPF from the Mazda 6 with zero errors. That’s right, even if you’re vehicle is already in LIMP mode (restricting the engine performance to 3000rpm) then Sinspeed can still help. We remove the DPF and reset the PCM/ECU module to bring it out of LIMP mode and turn off all error lights.

Once the vehicle has left our workshop, you will never experience a DPF error warning light come back on and never experience any problems with it ever again. For more information, call us on 0871 2887 666 today.

Cold Starting Devices for Diesel Engines

Attempting to start Diesel engines in cold or sub zero temperatures is extremely difficult and usually an impossible task, unless appropriate accessories has been added to the engine to assist in such starting.

The hard starting problems of diesel engines in below zero / freezing temperatures are caused by two factors. One is the initial cold air being drawn into the turbocharger and compressed into the engine’s cylinder head. The second is the fuel itself, is also cold and this sub zero / freezing temperature fuel is sprayed into the cold engine’s combustion chamber, where it mixes with the cold air drawn thru turbocharger.

Additional problems will result from fact that a cold starting diesel engine needs to reach at least two hundred (200) rpm to develop a four hundred (400) psi compression pressure to sufficiently compress the air to fuel mixture, and thus, resulting in combustion.

These two problems will result in the diesel fuel being sprayed into the combustion chamber, and it will condense on the cold surfaces of the cylinder liners or cylinder block. This liquid fuel will seep through the piston rings, and fall into the engine’s crankcase, diluting the lubricating oil in the process.

Two simple devices can be used to reduce the possibility that these conditions occur. One is by the use of battery heaters and glow plugs. No one device can be used. Usually a combination of several devices will provide an overall efficient starting process.

The efficiency of a battery drops as its temperature drops. A battery that is fully charged at 26 degrees C (80 degrees F) will have its starting capacity drop to approximately forty six percent (46%) available power at 17.7 degrees C below 0 (0 degrees F). Additionally, at this temperature, the engine will be approximately two and a half (2.5) times harder to start at -17.7 C (0 F) degrees due to thicker oil and resistance to movement of internal moving parts. This gets worst at lower temperatures are experienced.

To solve this, one of two common devices is used to heat the battery. One is a padded silicone covered, acid resistant rubber hot pad heater. This operates off of 110/120V and comes in various wattages. The power range can be 60W to 500W, and this can be used to heat the batteries, engine oil pan, fuel tank, hydraulic tank, and the water tank.

The other device that is typically used in conjunction with the hot pad is the glow plug. This is an internally fixed low voltage heating element that is fitted directly into the combustion chamber. When this is switched on, it can take up to two minutes to heat up, however, by that time it has reached approximately 700 degrees C (1652 degrees F) and the combustion chamber is hot enough to prevent the condensing of the diesel fuel, and thus, ignition is guaranteed.